NFYK13005U Quantum Information

Volume 2013/2014
MSc Programme in Physics
Quantum Information aims at exploiting quantum mechanics to perform certain tasks (computation, measurements, communication, etc.) more efficiently than it is allowed by classical physics. The course will give an introduction to quantum information as well as to some of the physical systems where implementation of quantum information processing is being attempted. Special attention will be on quantum optical systems (atoms, ions, and photons).
In the course we will be dealing with the fundamental and often paradoxical structure of quantum mechanics. By working with these subjects the participants will not only be brought up to date we a very active field of research, but will also gain a deeper understanding of quantum mechanics.
Learning Outcome
After the course the students should be able to explain how the various quantum information protocols work and why they are better than any classical protocol. Furthermore the students should be able to describe how one implements quantum information protocols in practice and discuss some of the problems, which arise when one tries to do so.
More specifically the students should be able to:
  • describe how the BB84 quantum cryptography protocol works and how it is implemented in practice.
  • define entanglement for pure states, and describe how to use it for super dense coding, cryptography and teleportation.
  • explain how entanglement may be generated experimentally for photons, ions and atoms.
  • explain what a quantum computer is and describe how the Deutsch and Grover algorithms and quantum simulation work on a quantum computer.
  • discuss the general requirement for practical implementation of quantum computation and describe how these requirements are fulfilled for an ion trap.
  • explain the teleportation protocol for both discrete and continuous variables and sketch the general principles behind their experimental implementations.
  • explain the basics of entanglement theory and relate it to the violation of Bell's inequalities
  • discuss how decoherence and imperfections appear and influence the experiments and know how to describe it in terms of the density matrix.
  • relate the various parts of the course together and apply the knowledge gained in the course in new situations.

The course will discuss some of the quantum information protocols, which performs certain tasks, that are classically impossible. At the same time we discuss how scientists realize these ideas in the lab. The quantum information topics, which will be covered, include quantum computation, entanglement, quantum cryptography, teleportation, quantum memory, and quantum measurements. We will mainly discuss implementations in ion traps, photons, and atomic ensembles, but liquid Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and solid state systems might also be discussed briefly.

This course will provide a deeper understading of the quantum mechanics learned in previous courses, and how to use this for e.g. computation, measurements and communication.. It will also provide the students with a competent background for further studies within this research field, e.g. an M.Sc. project

Various notes and articles.
It is an advantage if you followed Quantum Optics in block 3, but not necessary. It will be assumed that you have heard about the quantization of the electromagnetic field, either in the quantum optics course or some other course. It is assumed that you have a good background in quantum mechanics, e.g., through following the physics curriculum on the first three years or similar. Also it may be an advantage if you followed the course on Optical Physics and Lasers.
Lectures and exercises
  • Category
  • Hours
  • Exam
  • 0,5
  • Lectures
  • 26
  • Preparation
  • 153,5
  • Theory exercises
  • 26
  • Total
  • 206,0
7,5 ECTS
Type of assessment
Oral examination, 30 min
Without preparation time
Marking scale
7-point grading scale
Censorship form
No external censorship
More internal examiners
Criteria for exam assesment
The grade 12 is given to student who clearly demonstrates that the above goals are fulfilled with no or only very minor exceptions.

The grade 2 is given for the least acceptable fulfillment of the above goal.