NFYB13008U Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics

Volume 2024/2025

BSc Programme in Physics


The purpose of this course is to provide an introduction and overview of the physics of strong and electroweak interactions and their experimental foundation. These fundamental forces underlie the rich phenomenology of Nature's smallest components: elementary particles and atomic nuclei. The course will outline the theoretical and experimental advances which have led to the current understanding of physics at the subatomic scale. These topics will be covered at a mathematical level appropriate for undergraduates students of physics. The focus will be more on the understanding of phenomena rather than their rigorous mathematical description. The course will touch upon selected topics of current interest.


More specifically, the course will introduce the following topics:


  • Symmetries and conservation laws in nuclear and particle physics.
  • Relativistic kinematics and applications in high-energy reactions.
  • The Standard Model theory: fundamental matter particles and their interactions by strong and electroweak forces.
  • The Higgs mechanism and the origin of mass.
  • Neutrino oscillations and masses.
  • Effective nucleon-nucleon interactions and models of nuclear physics.
  • Alpha, beta and gamma decay and fission.
  • Form factors and structure functions.
  • Selected applications of nuclear and particle phyiscs


The course forms the basis for future studies or projects in particle physics or nuclear physics.

Learning Outcome

At the end of the course the student is expected to be able to:



  • Explain the properties of fundamental particles and their interactions summarized in the Standard Model of particle physics.
  • Give an account of  nuclear models as a quantum-mechanical many-body system in an effective potential.
  • Describe and evaluate properties of nuclear reactions and radioactivity.
  • Describe experimental methods of nuclear and particle physics.
  • Summarize key experimental results that have led to our present subatomic models.
  • Demonstrate familiarity with applications of subatomic physics.



  • Determine which nuclear and particle processes are allowed by conservation laws.
  • Apply relativistic kinematics to the study of high energy collisions.
  • Estimate decay rates and cross sections of particle physics processes, e.g. beta decay or neutrino scattering, with the concept of Feynman diagrams.
  • Relate length and time scales, relevant for subatomic interactions and decays, to characteristic mass scales of nuclear and particle physics.
  • Summarize and discuss scientific articles with peers.



  • Apply prior knowledge of quantum mechanics and special relativity to describe subatomic phenomena.
  • Apply prior knowledge of statistics and experimental uncertainties to experimental subatomic physics data.
  • Relate nuclear and particle phenomenology to subatomic particles and interactions and demonstrate understanding of relevant energy scales and quantum numbers.
  • Formulate the basic elements of calculations of cross sections and decay rates in subatomic physics.
  • Relate concepts of subatomic physics to selected modern applications.


For final course literature see Absalon.

The following is an example of suggested course literature:

B.R. Martin. Nuclear and particle physics. Wiley, 3rd ed.

This course requires and builds upon concepts and techniques from Classical Mechanics, Electromagnetism, Quantum Mechanics and Special Relativity. To be successful in this course, students should have completed courses covering these topics at the level of the required BSc courses at NBI.
Lectures, discussions, and exercises
  • Category
  • Hours
  • Lectures
  • 40
  • Preparation
  • 54
  • Exercises
  • 48
  • Exam
  • 64
  • Total
  • 206
Continuous feedback during the course of the semester

There will be weekly office hours, where students are welcome to discuss their performance in the course.

General oral feedback will be given during discussion and exercise sessions.

7,5 ECTS
Type of assessment
Oral examination, 25 minutes (no preparation time)
Continuous assessment
Type of assessment details
The exam consists of three parts:
(A) 25-minute oral exam
(B) 6 homework sets
(C) poster presentation (group exercise) of a scientific article

The grade combines the grade of the oral exam (50% for part A) and the grade from continuous assessment (50% for parts B+C). Each part of the exam has to be passed separately in order to pass the course.

The grade from continuous assessment is the combined grade from a poster presentation (20%) and the best 5 out of 6 homework sets (80%).
All aids allowed
Marking scale
7-point grading scale
Censorship form
No external censorship
Several internal examiners

Only the part(s) of the exam that were not passed should be re-taken.

If the oral exam (part A) was not passed, the student will be given another oral exam of 25 minutes.

If the continuous assessment (parts B+C) was not passed, the student will be given a 24 hour take-home exam. This take-home exam replaces the combined grade of parts B+C.

Criteria for exam assesment

See "Learning Outcome".