SVEK13043U Veterinary Imaging
MSc Programme in Veterinary Medicine - compulsory
The course comprises the following elements:
Basis of conventional radiographic imaging
· Production of x-rays
The x-ray spectrum including manipulation of the spectrum of x-rays emitted from diagnostic x-ray tubes and interaction of x-rays with matter
· Compton and photoelectric effects
· Concepts of radiographic density
· Causes of poor image contrast with emphasis on scattered radiation.
· Image sharpness
· Radiographic image detectors.
Basic radiography /Production of optimal radiographic images.
· Positioning and technical aspects relating to correct positioning and exposure for standard views of the skeleton, thorax and abdomen in veterinary species.
· The use of appropriate radiographic terminology.
Radiographic anatomy/topographic anatomy:·
The common anatomical features within various body regions including the head, neck, thoracic and pelvic limbs, the thorax and abdomen, that are of relevance for the interpretation of diagnostic images produced by the range of modern imaging modalities. Special focus will be put on images from the dog, cat and from the limbs of the horse.
Radiation safety and radiation biology
· The nature of x-rays as an ionizing radiation and their effect on biological tissue. The relation between tissue dose and biological effect. Work related exposure of personnel to ionizing radiation as a result of imaging and therapeutic uses of these radiations. Dose limits and the “ALARA” (As Low As Reasonable Achievable) principal.
· The appropriate radiation safety steps, with practical examples relating to work practice and work place infrastructure, based on Danish legislation in this area.
Ultrasound, MRI, CT, and Scintigraphy · the physical basis of the various modalities:
· Nature of ultrasound beams·
Effect of insonation frequency on image quality
· Physical basis for tissue echogenesity
· Brightness mode imaging
· Doppler imaging
· Concept of cross sectional imaging
Examples of clinical applications Computer tomography:
· Cross sectional and planar reconstruction
· The CT number, linear attenuation coefficients for x-rays and the Hounsfield Unit.
· Digital image windowing, window width and centre.
Examples of clinical applications Scintigraphy:
· Radioisotopes with emphasis on 99Tcm
Examples of clinical applications Magnetic resonance imaging:
· Hydrogen as a magnetic dipole
· Magnetic gradients· Radiofrequency coils
· Basis of image generation·
Examples of clinical applications
·Identify and name relevant normal and abnormal anatomical structures on images produced by different imaging modalities.
·Be able to comment on the suitability of various imaging modalities in response to selected clinical scenarios.
·Comment on the risk associated with radiographic practice and relate them to commonly encountered, non-radiological risks.
·Identify features indicating correct patient restraint, positioning, beam collimation and centering in standard radiographic views, and comment on digital image or film processing as appropriate.
·Recognise images produced by radiography, ultrasound, scintigraphy, CT, MRI.
·Be able to produce a selection of common radiographic projections in a safe manner from canine, feline and equine patients.
·List the radiographic changes that are commonly encountered in common diseases in dogs, cats and horses.
·Identify normal and abnormal radiographic findings on radiographic images in selected cases commonly encountered in veterinary practice
·Recognize and find normal abdominal and thoracic structures commonly encountered in ultrasound examinations
·Perform a standard radiological examination.
.Demonstrate a methodical approch to image evaluation of radiographs, and ultrasound.
·Choose the appropriate imaging modality for common clinical presentations.
·Speculate on and discuss the changes one might expect to encounter given various disease scenarios.
·Behave in accordance with the legislation (Law number 23 of January 15th 2018, Bekendtgørelse 84 of 2nd of February 2018, Bekendtgørelse 85 of 2nd of February 2018, Bekendtgørelse 86 of 2nd of February 2018)
Textbook of Veterinary Diagnostic Radiology 7. ed. 2018 (Editor: Thrall) ISBN 9780323482479·
Law number 23 of January 15th 2018, Lov om ioniserende stråling og strålebeskyttelse (strålebeskyttelsesloven)
Bekendtgørelse 84 of 2nd of February 2018, Bekendtgørelse om ioniserende stråling og strålebeskyttelse
Bekendtgørelse 85 of 2nd of February 2018, Bekendtgørelse om brug af radioaktive stoffer
Bekendtgørelse 86 of 2nd of February 2018 Bekendtgørelse om brug af strålingsgeneratorer
Strålehygiejne ved røntgenundersøgelse af dyr. Sundhedsstyrelsen, 2002. (available at https://www.sst.dk/da/straalebeskyttelse/straalingsgeneratorer/vejledninger)
Veterinær brug af transportabelt røntgenapparater, Sundhedsstyrelsen 2016 (available at https://www.sst.dk/da/straalebeskyttelse/straalingsgeneratorer/vejledninger)
The veterinary imaging rotation (the 4 weeks rotation) consists of a theoretical practical module including interpretation paradigms and radiographic anatomy, a practical module concerning appropriate radiographic technique and exercises in ultrasonography and finally a clinical case module including interpretation of small and large animal radiology, CT and MRI.
The teaching is comprised of lectures, seminars, group work, e-learning, as well as individual obligatory practical exercises and tests that must be approved in order to obtain the course certificate.
Undervisningsform: Lectures to activate the student’s prior and to present overviews of specific topics and to introduce the rotations.
Introductory week 5 sessions 13.00 – 17.00, Friday also 9-12:30.
Monday: Introduction and Radiographic anatomy
Tuesday: Radiation safety and radiobiology
Wednesday: Basic radiology, principles of diagnostic imaging
Friday: Diagnostic imaging physics - Main focus on radiography and ultrasonography.
4 weeks activities (08.30 to 14.30):
2 weeks of practicals to cover basic radiography and ultrasound including radiation safety and radiobiology
2 weeks of clinical lab to include small and large animal radiology, CT and MRI.
Supervised work including e-learning and guided cases in order to facilitate the students’ learning of the methodology and principles of diagnostic imaging.
Evaluation model: Survey-based model
- Practical exercises
- Project work
This course is not available for credit transfer students and other external students.
- 7,5 ECTS
- Type of assessment
- Continuous assessment, 4 x 1 hourPractical oral examination, 15 minutes4 hours exam. Questions will cover radiation safety and radiobiology. In addition questions may cover the modalities X-ray imaging (radiology), ultrasound, CT, MRI and scintigraphy. Questions on all modalities will evaluate an understanding of the underlying imaging principles and on x-ray and ultrasound imaging will test understanding and skills required to evaluate clinical images in small and large animals.
The examination will take the form of assignments that run throughout the course. The assignments may include multiple choice questions, short answer questions or short essay questions and peer-reiviewed activities. The practical part includes an OSCE-based radiographic task.
- Exam registration requirements
Students have to participate actively in at least 80% of the practical course, defined as 80% attendance in each module.
During the course students must show that they are able to satisfactorily perform practical clinical tasks regarding radiation safety, normal radiographic practise and the use of other imaging modalities.
Students have to participate actively in the course. This includes submission and peer-review of assignments as required. They must perform acceptably during the obligatory practical exercises and tests in order to obtain a course certificate of approval.
- Only certain aids allowed
Reference materials appropriate to the exam format will be allowed. This will range from no material allowed for the practical to all material alowed for some of the other assignment formats. Students will be informed during the course prior to the specific assignments.
- Marking scale
- completed/not completed
- Censorship form
- No external censorship
No censorship. One examiner.
Criteria for exam assesment
To pass the running examinations during the course including the online examination the student shall demonstrate, at an adequate level:
·Identity and name relevant normal and abnormal anatomical structures on images produced by different imaging modalities.
.Comment on the risk associated with radiographic practice and relate them to commonly encountered, non-radiological risks.
.Identify features indicating correct patient restraint, positioning, beam collimation and focusing in standard radiographic views, and comment on digital image or film processing as appropriate.
.Recognise images produced by each of the methods, scintigraphy, CT, MRI.
Be able to produce a selection of common radiographic projections in a safe manner from canine, feline and equine patients.
.Demonstrate a methodical approch to image evaluation of radiographs, CT and ultrasound.
·Choose the appropriate imaging modality for common clinical presentations.
Behave in accordance with current Danish legislation (currently Law number 23 of January 15th 2018, Lov om ioniserende stråling og strålebeskyttelse (strålebeskyttelsesloven), Bekendtgørelse 84 of 2nd of February 2018, Bekendtgørelse om ioniserende stråling og strålebeskyttelse, Bekendtgørelse 85 of 2nd of February 2018, Bekendtgørelse om brug af radioaktive stoffer, Bekendtgørelse 86 of 2nd of February 2018 Bekendtgørelse om brug af strålingsgeneratorer)
Perform a standard radiological examination.
Choose the appropriate imaging modality for common clinical presentations.