AØKK08355U Seminar: Urban Economics
This seminar focuses on presenting and discussing the basis urban economic analysis and its use in policy evaluation. The main themes which will be covered in the seminar are: agglomeration economies, analysis of urban spatial structure (commuting, housing production and population density), urban sprawl and land-use controls, hedonic price analysis, residential location choice and tenure choice, housing policies, urban distress (urban poverty and segregation), urban externalities (congestion, crime and pollution), cities and transport systems, and spatial labor markets (monopsony):
- Agglomeration economies: why do cities exist? This is the fundamental question of urban economics. The answer to this question depends, at least partly, on the agglomeration economies and the scale economies. The agglomeration economies make larger urban areas (cities) more productive than small ones and the scale economies are known as “increasing returns to scale”. Urban economists have had a major effect on policy, and the trend toward city (de)regulation and many of the urban policies (e.g. land-use controls, rent controls and housing subsidy programs) and the abolitions of the place based policies are due to lessons from urban economics.
- Spatial equilibrium in the Alonso-Muth-Mills model: The basic urban economic model is a monocentric city model. Essential assumptions in this model are that employment is constrained in one location, monetary commuting costs depend on distance, and workers may freely choose the optimal residence location. Furthermore, it is assumed that house prices are endogenous and workers are homogeneous in all aspects except for income. The seminar provides a mainstream treatment of urban spatial structure including demand for housing and commuting in a standard monocentric city model.
- The static model and the Rosen-Roback framework: In the standard monocentric city model, the role of residential amenities is ignored, but these are clearly important. In the Rosen-Roback framework, the residential location choice, job location and commuting distance depends explicitly on the spatial distribution of residential urban amenities. The seminar offers a detailed analysis of the possible implication of spatial distribution of urban amenities. For example, suppose that all jobs and amenities are in city centres. This is likely a reasonable description for Denmark, where residential amenities and employment tend to be in, or close to, historic city centres. In this case, an increase in household income would induce households to move residence closer to city centres. Another example can be the analysis of urban externalities (e.g. congestion, crime and pollution).
- Hedonic price analysis and the residential location choice: Property value hedonics is the workhorse model for valuation of local public goods and urban amenities. The hedonic price function describes a price equilibrium on a market for a heterogeneous commodity, without describing the underlying forces of demand and supply. Models of residential location choice (equilibrium sorting models) provide a structural description of the market which opens up the possibility for doping counterfactual (policy) analysis. The recent literature has demonstrated that household location choices are not only affected by the accessibility to employment opportunities but also by accessibility to urban amenities. The seminar provides an introduction to current practice in using hedonic price analysis and residential sorting models. The residential sorting models are useful for analyses of urban distress (e.g. urban poverty and segregation).
- Transportation and land use in urban areas: The role that transportation plays in the spatial development of urban areas is of great interest. The focus here is on the question of where consumption or production occurs, instead of the question of how much to consume and produce. In order to answer this question, a monocentric theory of residential an employment location can be applied.
These topics cover many of the important urban economic issues that have emerged in the academic literature over the past three decades. The focus will be on selected topics dealing with contemporary issues of urban policy such as pricing and regulation.
Ideas for papers:
- Why cities exist?
- Urban amenities and the housing prices.
- Why is housing different?
- Segregation – consequences or sources of education and crime?
- The sources of agglomeration economies.
- Wages, labour supply and commuting.
- Why do firms cluster?
- Congestion pricing and the urban structure
After completing the seminar the student must have achieved the learning outcome specified in the Curriculum including to be able to
- Describe urban fabric
- Describe urban pricing, urban distress (poverty and segregation) and urban externalities (crime, congestion and pollution)
- Describe and explain the fundamental principles behind urban structure and urban sparawl.
- Define the necessary quantitaive tools for projecting the
development in urban areas.
- Analyze housing prices (hedonic price analysis) and residential location choice
- Analyse urban – incl transport – policy reforms and land use controls
- Use models to welfare-analysis and cost-benefit analysis
- Evaluate the effects on welfare of policy interventions such as transport policy reforms and land use controls
- Argue concerning the usefulness of a specific model for a specific problem
- Implement and explain a welfare analysis of an urban area
- Initiate collaborations between urban and transport economists, gographers and urban planers
- Brueckner, J. K. 2011. Lectures on urban economics. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England.
- Glaeser, E. L. 2008. Cities, Agglomeration and Spatial Equilibrium. Oxford University Press.
- O’Sullivan, A. 2012. Urban Economics, (eight edition). McGraw-Hill, Boston, USA..
- Kick-off meeting
- Finding literatur and defining the project
- Writing process of the seminar paper
- Presentation of own project and paper
- Giving constructive feedback to another student´s paper
- Actively participating in discussions at the presentations and other meetings.
At the seminar the student is trained independently to
- identify and clarify a problem,
- seek and select relevant literatur,
- write a academic paper,
- present and discuss own paper with the other students at the seminar.
The aim of the presentations is, that the student uses the presentation as an opportunity to practice oral skills and to receive feedback. The presentations is not a part of the exam and will not be assessed.
There is no weekly teaching/lecturing and the student cannot expect guidance from the teacher. If the teacher gives a few introduction lectures or gives the opportunity for guidance, this as well as other expectations are clarified at the kickoff meeting.
It is strongly recommended that you think about and search for a topic before the semester begins, as there is only a few weeks from the kick-off meeting to the submission of the project description/ agreement paper.
Before the presentations, your nearly finished version of the seminar project paper must be uploaded in Absalon, as the opponents and the other seminar participants have to read and comment on the paper. It is important that you upload a paper that is so finalized as possible due to the fact that the value of feedback and comments at the presentation is strongly associated with the skill level of the seminar paper.
After the presentations, you can with a few corrections improve the seminar paper by including the feedback and comments emerged during the presentations. It is NOT intended that you rewrite or begin the writing of the full project AFTER the presentation has taken place.
• Kick-off meeting: February 3rd, 2020, from 15:15 to 17:00
• Extra days of introducing teaching: February 10th, 15.15-17.00
• Deadline of commitment paper: not later than March 1st at 10 AM
• Deadline of pre-paper upload in Absalon: A week before the presentations
• Presentations/Workshops: One to three days during 1st to 22th of May.
All information regarding the seminar is communicated through Absalon including venue. So it is very important that you by yourself logon to Absalon and read the information already when you are registered at the seminar.
- Project work
- 7,5 ECTS
- Type of assessment
- Written examination- a seminar paper in English that meets the formal requirements for written papers stated in the curriculum of the Master programme and at KUNet for seminars.
- Exam registration requirements
- All aids allowed
for the seminar paper.
The supervisor defines the aids that must be used for the presentations.
- Marking scale
- 7-point grading scale
- Censorship form
- External censorship
- Exam period
Deadline for uploading the final seminar paper: June 2, 2020 before 10 AM
The seminar paper must be uploaded to the Digital Exam. More information will be available from the middle of the semester.
The reexam is a written seminar paper as stated in the Curriculum.
Criteria for exam assesment
Students are assessed on the extent to which they master the learning outcome for the seminar and can make use of the knowledge, skills and competencies listed in the learning outcomes in the Curriculum of the Master programme.
To receive the top grade, the student must with no or only a few minor weaknesses be able to demonstrate an excellent performance displaying a high level of command of all aspects of the relevant material.