JJUA55089U Limits to War: Law and Morality in the Regulation of Armed Conflict
The question of the limits to war and the use of force has been one of the most controversial political and legal topics of the last decade. In the course of the seminar the students will be introduced to the most significant theoretical developments and the most salient moral dilemmas that arise in the legal regulation of war. The course will be organized around a tripartite typology of warfare – symmetrical, hegemonic, and asymmetrical – and the primary learning objective of the course is to understand how these different matrices of conflict condition the way law limits and regulates the recourse to force and what moral commitments accompany this regulation. Throughout, developments in the regulation of war are placed within the context of societal change and technological innovation.
The overall aim of the course is to:
- Provide students with an understanding of the most significant theoretical developments in the legal regulation of war and the underlying philosophical conceptions
- Develop students’ understanding of the way various fields of law interact in how we conceptualize the legal limits to war
- Develop students’ awareness of the interaction of law, politics, and technology in the regulation of war
- Provide students with the analytical tool needed to assess legal and moral arguments in the study and solving of legal problems.
Among the topics covered are:
- Transformations of the legal conception of war
- Basic philosophical principles of the laws of war and international humanitarian law
- Invention of international humanitarian law
- Nuclear deterrence and the rule of law
- Non-charter principles of use of force (humanitarian intervention, responsibility to protect, preemptive self-defense)
- Forms of asymmetrical warfare (targeted killings, drones)
- Interface between international humanitarian law and criminal law
- Crimes against humanity
- War on terror
Readings (cases and scholarly literature): 755 pages
Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, Advisory
Opinion, 1996 ICJ Rep. 226 (excerpt – 20 pages)
Kadi and Al Barakaat International Foundation vs. Council and Commission (ECJ Combined cases C-402/05P & C- 415/05P) (excerpt – 15 pages)
Boumediene vs. Bush 553 US 723 (2008) (excerpt – 20 pages)
Beard, Jack, “Law and War in the Virtual Era”, American Journal
of International Law, Vol. 103, No. 3 (2009) (25 pages).
Bohman, James, “Punishment as a Political Obligation: Crimes Against Humanity and the Enforceable Right to Membership”, Buffalo Criminal Law Review, Vol. 5, No. 2 (2002) (excerpt – 35 pages).
Danner, Allison Marston, “When Courts Make Law: How the International Criminal Tribunals Recast the Laws of War”, 51 Vanderbilt Law Review 1, 41 (2006) (excerpt – 35 pages).
Duff, Anthony, “Authority and Responsibility in International Criminal Law” in Besson, Samantha & John Tasioulas (eds.), The Philosophy of International Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 2010 (20 pages).
Toni Erskine, “Coalitions of the Willing and Responsibilities to Protect: Informal Associations, Enhanced Capacities, and Shared Moral Burdens”, Ethics & International Affairs 28, no. 1 (2014) (25 pages).
Franck, Thomas M., “Humanitarian Interventionism” in Besson, Samantha & John Tasioulas (eds.), The Philosophy of International Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 2010 (20).
Franck, Thomas M., “The Emerging Right to Democratic Governance”, American Journal of International Law, Vol. 86, No. 1 (1992) (excerpt – 30 pages).
Goldsmith, Jack, “How Cyber Changes the Laws of War”, European
Journal of International Law, vol. 24, no. 1 (2013) (10 pages).
Grotius, Hugo, The Rights of War and Peace, (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund), 2005 (1625), Book I, chap. ii (30 pages).
Hobbes, Thomas, Leviathan (Indianapolis/Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Company), 1994 (1651), Book I, chap. xiii (5 pages).
Kahn, Paul W., “Nuclear Weapons and the Rule of Law”, 31 New York University Journal of International Law & Policy 349 (1998-1999) (excerpt – 30 pages).
Kahn, Paul W., Political Theology. Four New Chapters on the Concept of Sovereignty (New York/Chichester: Columbia University Press), 2010, chap IV & conclusion (30 pages).
Kahn, Paul W., “The Paradox of Riskless Warfare”, Philosophy & Public Policy, Vol. 22, No. 3 (2002) (10 pages)
Lev, Amnon, Sovereignty and Liberty, A Study of the Foundations of Power (Abingdon: Routledge), 2014, chap 4 & 5 (35 pages).
Lev, Amnon, “War on Terror and International Law: Towards a Continental Divide” in Jenkins, Christopher David, Anders Henriksen & Amanda Jacobsen (eds.), The Long Decade: how 9/11 has changed the Law, (New York: Oxford University Press), 2014 (15 pages).
Luban, David, “A Theory of Crimes Against Humanity”, 29 Yale Journal of International Law 85-167 (2004) (excerpt – 40 pages).
Martin, Craig, “Going Medieval: Targeted Killing, Self-Defense and the Jus ad Bellum Regime” in Finkelstein, Claire, Jens David Ohlin & Andrew Altman (eds.), Targeted Killings.
Law and Morality in an Asymmetrical World (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 2012 (25 pages).
McMahan, Jeff, “Targeted Killing: Murder, Combat or Law Enforcement” in Finkelstein, Claire, Jens David Ohlin & Andrew Altman (eds.), Targeted Killings. Law and Morality in an Asymmetrical World (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 2012 (20 pages).
Neff, Stephen C., War and the Laws of Nations. A General History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 2008 (25 pages).
Rawls, John, The Law of Peoples with “The Idea of Public Reason Revisited” (Cambridge, Mass,: Harvard University Press), 1999, §§ 10, 13-14 (15 pages).
Theresa Reinhold, “State Weaknesss, Irregular Warfare, and the Right to Self-Defense Post-9/11”, American Journal of International Law, Vol. 105, No. 2 (2011) (35 pages)
W. Michael Reisman & Andrea Armstrong, “The Past and Future of the Claim to Preemptive Self-Defense”, American Journal of International Law, Vol. 1000, No. 3 (2006) (25 pages)
Schmitt, Carl, “The Turn to the Discriminating Concept of War” (1937) in Nunan, Timothy (ed.), Carl Schmitt. Writings on War (Cambridge: Polity Press), 2011 (35 pages).
Stahn, Carsten, “Responsibility to Protect: Political Rhetoric or Emerging Legal Norm?”, American Journal of International Law, Vol. 101, No. 1 (2007) (20 pages).
Walzer, Michael, Just and Unjust Wars. A Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations (New York: Basic Books), 2000 (1977), chap. 2-3, 17, (35 pages).
Whitman, James Q., The Verdict of Battle. The Law of Victory and the Making of Modern War (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press), 2014 (30 pages).
Witt, John Fabian, Lincoln’s Code. The Laws of War in American History (New York: Free Press), 2013 (30 pages).
Zolo, Danilo, “Humanitarian Militarism?” in Besson, Samantha & John Tasioulas (eds.), The Philosophy of International Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 2010 (20 pages).
- 15 ECTS
- Type of assessment
- Oral examination, 20Oral exam with preparation, 20 minutes.
- Marking scale
- 7-point grading scale
- Censorship form
- External censorship
- Exam period
December 14 - 18, 2015 (Preliminary dates)
Please see the 'Academic calendar' under 'Exam' in the Study pages
Criteria for exam assesment
The students will be judged on
1) their ability to analyze rules relating to the use of force,
2) to assess the relative weight of legal and moral arguments in the development of the law, and
3) to situate significant developments of the law in the context of broader societal and technological transformations