MSc Programme in Food Science and Technology
MSc Programme in Biology-Biotechnology
MSc Programme in Animal-derived Foods (Food of
Spectroscopic measurement techniques have a number of advantages
to classic chemical and chromatographic measurement techniques:
Rapid (can be used to monitor process dynamics and an advantage for
Quality control(QC) logistics)
Non-destructive (facilitate measurements on intact sample
structures and a requirement for on-line measurements)
Environmentally friendly (no use of chemicals and no harm to the
Multivariate (exploit first order data advantage and gives the
possibility of measuring several quality parameters simultaneously)
Remote (allow for volumetric measurements and 'through
The Danish food, pharma and biotech industries have in recent years
shown a steadily increased interest in developing and adapting
spectroscopic measurement techniques for on-line monitoring of
their processes in real time. The advantages of using
non-destructive spectroscopic measurement techniques may give
significant improvements in raw material grading, product and
process knowledge, quality and safety and have recently been
endorsed by the FDA for use in the pharmaceutical industry as
'Process Analytical Technologies, PAT'. It is therefore
almost certain that future food, pharma and biotech candidates will
find themselves with problems that best can be solved by using
spectral sensors. The spectral sensors can also in the food process
industry as well as in food legislation bureaus.
Through lectures and laboratory exercises, the course will
introduce the students to the most widely used spectroscopic
techniques spanning a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum
including visual (VIS), fluorescence, near infrared (NIR), infrared
(IR), Raman and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
The course is of prime importance to the food, pharma and biotech
candidate education as on-line process monitoring becomes more and
more widespread in the advanced segment of the industry and because
spectroscopy constitutes a new efficient tool for investigating
biological processes in humans and plants.
The course relates closely with the course in exploratory data
analysis (chemometrics) and is compulsory for the master Food
Science and Technology specialization in Process Analytical
Technology (PAT). The course is considered basic for students who
wish to study plant or human metabolomics.
The main objective of this course is to make the student
familiar with the basic concepts and physics of the most abundant
non-destructive spectroscopic techniques utilized for on- or
at-line process monitoring and quality control in the modern food,
pharma or biotech-industry. The course is designed to give the
student basic theoretical background and hands-on experience with
fluorescence, VIS, NIR, IR, Raman and NMR spectroscopy. The course
will emphasize practical use of spectroscopy and discuss problems,
pitfalls and tricks of the trade in relation to quantitative use of
spectroscopy including for example spectroscopic calibration and
optimal sample presentation to spectrometer.
After completing the course the student should be able to:
-Reflect about advantages and disadvantages of spectroscopic
-Describe various spectroscopic methods (electron spectroscopy,
vibrational spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance)
-Define how to present a theoretical or practical spectroscopic
-Perform spectroscopic measurements and data analysis
(qualitatively and quantitatively) on selected biological mixture
-Suggest and apply spectroscopic monitoring equipment and sampling
to solve specific problems
-Operate selected spectroscopic equipment and application to
complex biological material
-Understand and communicate spectroscopic expert and research
literature to fellow students
-Carry out selected spectroscopic measurements on complex
-Interpret selected spectroscopic data from biological samples
-Evaluate spectroscopic data quantitatively with basic chemometrics
(PCA and PLS)
Compendium will be distributed the first course
Teaching and learning methods
The course will be taught in a combination of
lectures, theoretical exercises and practical laboratory exercises.
The different spectral measurement techniques will be taught
through lectures and examples on specific applications in the
industry via selected guest lecturers. The laboratory exercises
will be performed in small groups of maximum four persons. Each
group of students will be assigned a quantitative sample series
using a mixture of complex substances of biological origin (f. ex.
proteins, fats, carbohydrates or water) to be investigated by
spectroscopic methods. The data has to be evaluated with basic
chemometrics methods such as PCA (principal component regression)
and PLS (partial least squares regression) and presented in a
written group report followed by an oral
Competences corresponding to the course
Exploratory Data Analysis / Chemometrics -
The students will be evaluated on basis of a written group
report with clear indication of individual contributions (50%) and
a following final individual oral examination based on a
presentation and discussion of the report and the course curriculum
Weight: Project report 50%, Oral examination 50%.
Exam registration requirements
Theoretical exercises approved.
Participation in article review.
Participation in practical exercises.
Submission of spectroscopy report.