SFAKIF302U  Toxicology

Volume 2017/2018
Education

MSc Programme in Pharmacy or Pharmaceutical Sciences (Danish programmes cand.pharm and cand.scient.pharm) - compulsory

MSc Programme in Medicinal Chemistry - elective

MSc Programme in Pharmaceutical Sciences (English programme) - elective

 

Content

The course gives a basic overview on fundamentals in both human-, and occupational toxicology. Basic toxicological topics encompass toxicodynamic, toxicokinetic description and metabolism of major groups of contaminants. Furthermore the course will give a basic understanding of acute toxic effects on the skin, the respiratory system, genotoxicity, mutagenicity, cell toxicity, organ toxicity, cancer development, reproduction, immunotoxicology and the effects of hormone disrupting compounds. Also teratogenicity, toxicophore description and modeling of dose-response relationships will be among the subjects. Classification of chemicals will shortly be described in the course and further more the use of toxicological data bases to access exposure and effect data will be discussed.

The course will also discuss in detail how to quantify a dose or an exposure of a chemical and be able to predict most important exposure routes or pathways. This will also include models for calculating effects of exposures to multiple compounds with same/similar mode of action. As an important element of the course the background for the fetal origins hypothesis will be addressed, which postulates that chemical exposure of non-acute toxicological effects during the prenatal environment “program” of the fetus is important for later development of diseases in adulthood. Occupational toxicology will focus on how to achieve a sound environment during production using chemicals. An overview of the most important diseases due to chemical exposure during occupation will be addressed. Furthermore an overview on the regulation of chemicals will be a subject. The overall aim of this course is to prepare the students to be able to at a later stage to perform simple risk assessments scenarios of human, environmental and occupational heath hazards and to evaluate potential hazards of a given xenobiotic. Lectures, theoretical exercises, and a written assignment will be the main form of teaching. Lectures are based on textbooks, lecture notes and some scientific papers. The topics of the theoretical exercises run in parallel with the topics treated in the lectures.

The written assignment (a case with 2 levels) will be performed in groups of 3 students that will work together to respond a case story that will give the students knowledge on how to conduct a risk assessment of pharmaceuticals or chemical compounds. The assignment focuses further more on selected chemicals and draws on the general insight in chemical, biological and physical processes to be learned and thus is fundamentally important for toxicology. Results are reported as a report.

Learning Outcome

Objective

The main objectives of the course is to introduce fundamentals and key methods in human-, and occupational toxicology, and to provide an overview of different approaches for acquiring data that may be applied in risk evaluation of pharmaceuticals and chemical pollutants to humans and the environment. The course consists of a number of lectures and a written assignment. The course is recommended for students who upon completion of their studies will be employed in sectors dealing with pharmaceuticals, health risks, environmental issues, such as public inspection, public health, environmental consulting, medical industry and the bioprocessing industries.

Upon completion of the course, the student will be able to:
 

Knowledge

  • describe toxicological mode of actions for most important groups of chemical substances to humans and environmental species.
  • define the most vulnerable target organ(s) or organism(s) for most important group of xenobiotics.
  • demonstrate knowledge on safety toxicology, and extrapolation from animal to human.
  • understand the use of physico-chemical parameters of compounds to predict toxicity, bioaccumulation and biomagnification
  • assess both acute and chronical toxicity data and evaluate different types of dose-response relationships including effects of mixtures of compounds with similar mode of action.
  • quantify a dose or an exposure of a chemical and be able to predict the most important exposure routes to humans and environment and exposure due to occupation.
  • suggest how to diminish an exposure of chemical in both human, environmental and occupational toxicology (practical management).
  • classify chemicals and xenobiotics (Tx, T, Xn, C and Xi).

 

Skills

  • transfer math concepts to solve 1st-order linear differential-integral equations, manipulate log relationships, convert between dimensional systems of units.
  • utilise relevant software for dose-responds relationships and problem solving(e.g. EPI-Win, Chem-Draw, Excel, R).
  • have knowledge on simple in-vitro human toxicological tests and models.
  • Report scientific results as a risk assessment report.

 

Competencies

  • integrate principles from chemistry, physics, biology, biochemistry and physiology with mass and energy balances to develop and solve simple toxicological questions.
  • apply simplified assumptions and estimate model and design parameters in the face ofbiological variability and uncertainty in measurement and prediction.

 

  • John Timbrell 'Principles of Biochemical Toxicology', 4rd edition, Taylor & september 2009
  • Different notes and scientific papers provided on the course homepage (English)
The course presumes basic knowledge at university bachelor level of 5 ECTS -credits in human or animal physiology, in biochemistry, in organic chemistry and in inorganic chemistry. Thus a total of minimum 20 ECTS credits. In addition, knowledge of basic biology and microbiology will be an advantage.
24 blocks of 4 hours each
Credit
2,5 ECTS
Type of assessment
Written assignment
The written assignment consists of a case study in 2 sections and is performed in groups of 3 students. The two sections are weighted equal.
Aid
All aids allowed
Marking scale
7-point grading scale
Censorship form
External censorship
Criteria for exam assesment

To achieve the grade 12 the student must be able to:

Knowledge

  • describe toxicological mode of actions for most important groups of chemical substances to humans and environmental species.
  • define the most vulnerable target organ(s) or organism(s) for most important group of xenobiotics.
  • demonstrate knowledge on safety toxicology, and extrapolation from animal to human.
  • understand the use of physico-chemical parameters of compounds to predict toxicity, bioaccumulation and biomagnification
  • assess both acute and chronical toxicity data and evaluate different types of dose-response relationships including effects of mixtures of compounds with similar mode of action.
  • quantify a dose or an exposure of a chemical and be able to predict the most important exposure routes to humans and environment and exposure due to occupation.
  • suggest how to diminish an exposure of chemical in both human, environmental and occupational toxicology (practical management).
  • classify chemicals and xenobiotics (Tx, T, Xn, C and Xi).

 

Skills

  • transfer math concepts to solve 1st-order linear differential-integral equations, manipulate log relationships, convert between dimensional systems of units.
  • utilise relevant software for dose-responds relationships and problem solving(e.g. EPI-Win, Chem-Draw, Excel, R).
  • have knowledge on simple in-vitro human toxicological tests and models.
  • report scientific results as a risk assessment report.

 

Competencies

  • integrate principles from chemistry, physics, biology, biochemistry and physiology with mass and energy balances to develop and solve simple toxicological questions.
  • apply simplified assumptions and estimate model and design parameters in the face ofbiological variability and uncertainty in measurement and prediction.
Credit
5 ECTS
Type of assessment
Written examination, 2 timer under invigilation
Multiple choice exam.
Aid
Written aids allowed

There is access to the following at the exam on Peter Bangs Vej:

  • Office (Word, Excel, Onenote and Powerpoint)
  • IO2 – the digital pen
  • Panoramic Viewer
  • Paint
  • Calculator – Windows' own
  • R – Statistical programme
  • ITX MC – multiple choice programme
  • Adobe reader
  • USB access – for usb stick with notes etc.

 

During the exam students are allowed to bring approved pocket calculator, molecular model building set and USB stick.

Marking scale
7-point grading scale
Censorship form
No external censorship
Criteria for exam assesment

To achieve the grade 12 the student must be able to:

Knowledge

  • describe toxicological mode of actions for most important groups of chemical substances to humans and environmental species.
  • define the most vulnerable target organ(s) or organism(s) for most important group of xenobiotics.
  • demonstrate knowledge on safety toxicology, and extrapolation from animal to human.
  • understand the use of physico-chemical parameters of compounds to predict toxicity, bioaccumulation and biomagnification
  • assess both acute and chronical toxicity data and evaluate different types of dose-response relationships including effects of mixtures of compounds with similar mode of action.
  • quantify a dose or an exposure of a chemical and be able to predict the most important exposure routes to humans and environment and exposure due to occupation.
  • suggest how to diminish an exposure of chemical in both human, environmental and occupational toxicology (practical management).
  • classify chemicals and xenobiotics (Tx, T, Xn, C and Xi).

 

Skills

  • transfer math concepts to solve 1st-order linear differential-integral equations, manipulate log relationships, convert between dimensional systems of units.
  • utilise relevant software for dose-responds relationships and problem solving(e.g. EPI-Win, Chem-Draw, Excel, R).
  • have knowledge on simple in-vitro human toxicological tests and models.
  • report scientific results as a risk assessment report.

 

Competencies

  • integrate principles from chemistry, physics, biology, biochemistry and physiology with mass and energy balances to develop and solve simple toxicological questions.
  • apply simplified assumptions and estimate model and design parameters in the face ofbiological variability and uncertainty in measurement and prediction.
  • Category
  • Hours
  • Lectures
  • 96
  • Preparation
  • 108
  • Exam
  • 2
  • Total
  • 206